Operation Tidal Wave: B-24 Liberators from five Bombardment Groups of the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces, 178 planes in all, attack the heavily defended Ploesti oil refinery in Romania. The raid caused significant damage but not did result in meaningful curtailment of the refinery’s output. In a day later referred to as “Black Sunday,” 53 planes and an estimated 660 aircrew were lost. While a strategic failure, the raid on Ploesti resulted in the award of five Congressional Medals of Honor, three of them posthumous.

Photo by Jerry J. Jostwick, the only survivor of the 16 cameramen who flew with B-24 crews on Operation Tidal Wave – https://media.defense.gov – Public Domain

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